Category Archives: Education

Captioning Solutions for Videos Posted Online

Rob Harvie is a captioning specialist. I have talked to him about the best captioning software that can be used by small companies or podcasters that want to make their content accessible. 
The script of my conversation with Rob follows:
[Reporter] What is the best software for in-house captioning?
[Rob] There’s a variety of them, and they range in cost from $10,000 through to about a hundred dollars. The larger your organization, the better it can warrant the more expensive or multi-feature captioning tool. And you can find them by doing searches.
I can name names, but I’m not going to, because I’m also going to recommend that you consider outsourcing your captioning. I’m all for internal proficiency, but captioning and capturing accurately can take a lot of time, plus, you want multiple proofing stages beyond that, and it may not be quite within your capacity to allocate the human resources and the training time and up-skilling time for them in order to caption, so an alternative to it is to look at some of the captioning services that exist.
Some of them are South of the border, they may not get your regional spellings correctly or Canadian spellings… but it might be more affordable in the long run, and accurate.
[Reporter] Most people would be tempted to turn to YouTube captioning. 
Why would say that’s not the best bet? 
[Rob] I’m sorry, can you repeat that? Good case in point.
YouTube is actually a pretty good bet for captioning, if you’re going to be involved in the captioning. But to rely upon YouTube’s automated captioning is asking for trouble, because YouTube’s leveraging AI or algorithms to process the speech, but the recognition of it can’t contextualize very well. So if you’re okay with having a robot as it were, putting words into your mouth, that you didn’t actually say… or that of your boss’ or that of your CEOs… Umm…Be prepared for the repercussions.
[Reporter] How expensive is to outsource your captioning?
[Rob] It can range, it depends on whether it’s done at a broadcast basis as an accommodation or for your clients and… different services have different sorts of levels of accuracy, of what you want to be worried of. But if it is sensitive information, you can’t afford to have wrong, it might run upwards of $500 an hour, or, roughly, somewhere between the eight to ten dollars a minute range.
[Reporter] Ok and if you cannot afford to outsource captioning, and you want to buy something that you have in-house because you’re going to do it very often…
[Rob] Right!
[Reporter] Which would be the best solution for a small company, what software would you recommend?
[Rob] Right off the bat you can use YouTube for free. You don’t have to rely upon the automated captioning, but you can use it itself and something called the caption editor.
[laughs] Now, I may have the name of that wrong. But it’s built right into YouTube 
and if you have an account, you can go in and build captions yourself. 
On through the about a hundred dollar range tools, like we used in this program in class, 
is something called Movie Captioner and Inqscribe. (INQ Scribe), were two affordable solutions which have a reasonably good workflow. Keep in mind that it takes about roughly often eight to ten times the amount of time to caption something than the length of the original content. So one minute of spoken content can take you eight or ten minutes to do that… that small portion.
On up through, again, $10,000 solutions that are more suitable for broadcast type situations or context.
[Reporter] What would be the most useful argument that you can make for a CEO
to convince him that he has to do the captioning of all the videos that they put on line?
[Rob] Well I’m not necessarily behind that you need to caption everything that you ever did, into perpetuity, because you might have hundreds of thousands of hours of video, 
and while it’s a great idea to crack that open, to make it accessible to everyone, 
it might be considered undue hardship, or not practicable to spend hundreds of thousands of dollars in order to do this. But you might want to have everything that you’re… as of a certain date, more accessible posted to the web. So you might say, well going back a year or going back two years, or as of February 31st… Well, February doesn’t have that many days, but, let’s say… March 1st, everything that goes up from now on, we’re planning to build into our infrastructure a workflow, and people in order to do this, and it’s possible to do…. Public perception, meeting your stakeholders needs, 
being able to communicate more effectively….
[Reporter] What about the Return of the Investment?
[Rob] well that’s… that’s a good question. I don’t have any stats to claim that you’re going to necessarily get this sort of percentage, but I think, pretty sure, you’re going to reclaim any of those expenses put in, in other ways. You’re going to be more appealing to those who want your products and services, again, your stakeholders are going to feel included
not being extremely frustrated that they’re not, and you’re avoiding a potential penalty 
dished out by the province, who could, in effect, hit you with a fine. Unlikely to happen, 
but if it hit the press that’s just as bad to you. You might be earmarked by a lobby group,
or advocate who’s fighting for the rights of those with disabilities and you don’t want to be in the papers.
[Reporter] Thank you so much.

Are captions and transcripts enough to make a podcast accessible?

A few weeks ago I sat down with Erin Poudrier, ASL interpreter, and we discussed about podcast accessibility. Erin is a huge fan of podcasts, especially those posted by the CBC.

The transcript of our conversation, as it has been posted on YouTube follows: 

[Reporter] Can you please tell me why do you think podcasts should be captioned and transcribed?
[Erin] I think that podcasts should be made accessible to the Deaf community because so many times I have been listening… I do a lot of listening to podcasts myself, specifically CBC documentaries podcasts and so many times I’m listening to these podcasts and these stories, and I think “Oh, my deaf friend or the deaf person that I’ve been working with would be so interested in this topic and I can’t even forward the story to them like I would any kind of other story. And it’s… I feel the frustration, and, actually,  most of the time they’re unaware of what they’re missing. 

[Reporter] So what do you think is the best solution to serve the Deaf community when it comes to making podcasts more accessible?
[Erin] I think that having an interpreter… interpreted story would be the best way of actually offering full accessibility because in stories, you have… it’s not… stories are not linear. Stories are complicated, they’re layered, they’re rich, they’re full of different… kind of ideas. When it’s translated into an English captioning or transcripts, it’s not the same feel from them, you can’t relate to it as much when you have this kind of barrier of language. When it’s produced in their natural language, it’s more dynamic, it’s more tangible, it’s more relatable, all of the goals to which a storyline is trying to develop with their reader or with their audience. So I really do believe that it should be provided
in ASL interpretation. 

[Reporter] But what about the costs? ’Cause I believe ASL interpretation is not a cheap service, isn’t it? So, if you have to think about the costs that producers of podcasts
have to take into consideration, is that something that they can really go for or is this just wishful thinking?
[Erin] I think that it comes down to values, to what audience are you valuing: are you valuing just only one type of audience, or do you want to be inclusive of everyone… kind of… in Canada. It’s really… for me it comes down to human rights. and so are you going to kind of ignore one population and say that they are not
valued enough to provide this when you’re choosing to maybe use your money elsewhere I think it comes down to prioritizing and when there’s a will, there’s a way.
[Reporter] Thank you.

The Clock Is Ticking for Ontario’s Education Accessibility Standards


A puzzled girl in front of a board covered in equations.
Ontario’s education system is not designed to fully include students with disabilities in mainstream classes.

More than 330,000 students in Ontario-funded schools have special education needs. But Ontario’s education system is not designed to fully include students with disabilities in mainstream classes. According to The Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA), by 2025, our province should be accessible to all its citizens, regardless of their abilities. Over the next three years, legislators will have to approve The Education Accessibility Standard, to ensure that all students with disabilities have equal access to the education system. That cannot be done without removing and preventing recurring accessibility barriers that impede students with disabilities from fully participating and attaining their potential.

Education Is A Right, Not A Privilege

The Ontario Human Rights Code guarantees the right to equal treatment in education, without discrimination. Under the Education Act, the Ministry of Education must identify exceptional pupils and ensure that all of them can access special education programs and services without payment of fees. School boards are required to develop a special education plan outlining programs and services. But, as good as things might look on paper, often, students with disabilities are not properly accommodated. In some cases, they fall through the cracks of the system, and sometimes just leave school.

Recently, 22 major disabilities organisations wrote an open letter to Premier Kathleen Wynne, underlining that “An Education Accessibility Standard should be designed to remove recurring accessibility barriers in our education system, so students with disabilities and their families don’t have to sue one barrier at a time, one education organization at a time.”  But which are the barriers mentioned in this open letter and what solutions are there to overcome them? Let’s find out from the people that face them every day.

Unexpected Barriers In Unexpected Places

Image of a boy with his head in his palms, looking at a notebook.
It may take up to 12 months for a child with special education needs to be identified and to receive an Individual Education Plan (IEP).

It’s not always a too tight door, no elevators or the lack of a ramp that prevent children from going to school. Disabilities are sometimes invisible. Let’s take learning disabilities for example. It may take up to 12 months for a child with special education needs to be identified and to receive an Individual Education Plan (IEP). The process is long and confusing and often parents complain about the lack of transparency and the difficulty of obtaining information about the available facilities and accommodations. Also, as the 2016 final report of the Barbara Hall review of TDSB governance mentions: “Parents expressed frustration at their inability to advocate for their children’s special education needs in an effective way. They feel isolated, afraid and unsure of how to work with the school board administration to support their children’s learning needs.”  Denisa Stoenescu Tutoveanu, mother of Alex, an ASD child, says that as a parent, she constantly needs to follow up with the school, to do extra research and keep herself informed, to be on the same page as the school, regarding the child’s progress. And if she doesn’t agree with her son’s Education Plan, there is no legal mean of attack. “ Structure the process more and make it straight forward.” she says, “Please, always listen and take the parents’ word because they know their kids the best, incorporate what they do privately in the child’s daily routine in school, so everyone is on the same page. Have meetings every 4-6 weeks, or as often as possible, so by working together, the system really helps the special needs kids to progress and be appreciated.” (Read the rest of the interview on the autor’s blog).

Once the IEP is drafted, it has to be implemented and, as Carry Kayton, a Special Education Teacher in Peel, told us: “The largest barrier is getting teachers on board, having them understand the IEP, and having them implement it. It’s not that they don’t want to implement IEPs, but they are overwhelmed, there is so much to do and it increases every year. Sometimes IEPs are too complicated and have unrealistic expectations. Kids are identified too late.”

Indeed, many teachers have to deal to up to 12 different IEPs in a class of 30 students. Not all teachers are trained in Special Education and there are not enough Educational Assistants for academic support. But some are willing to walk the extra mile, as you can see in the video below.

What Should Be Done

Jen Stevenson, Special Education Teacher Consultant for TDSB, has a few recommendations for the Education Accessibility Standards that might help not only students with IEPs, but kids in general: “We should be open to inclusive practices.  The fixed mindset must change. Some kids are in IEPs unnecessarily. Putting different strategies in place for different kids is just good teaching practice. If more school boards embraced that way of thinking, we would have fewer IEPs, but more successful kids. Job embedded training for teachers is needed, not a one size fits all course, but a targeted professional learning model. Class sizes should be smaller and more Educational Assistants should be there for academic support. Teachers should have more time to plan for students who need additional supports. We should come up with better transition plans for middle-school and high school, so kids are not lost to the system once they leave elementary schools. These are just a few that come to mind.” (Read the rest of the interview on the autor’s blog)

The Education Accessibility Standard should also require that the principles of Universal Design for Learning are incorporated into the curriculum taught in Ontario’s schools. It would be far easier to include students with disabilities in the mainstream educational setting, if instructors prepare their lesson plans with UDL in mind. As for parents, they expect less bureacracy and also a fair internal appeal process for the education accommodation issues. They need at least a clearer and faster assessment process, access to information and the right to have a say in their children’s IEPs.

These are just a few of the aspects that The Education Accessibility Standards should address in the next three years to meet the IASR deadlines. The Education Standards Development Committee hasn’t been appointed yet. So, call your MP, send an e-mail, ask a question: what more should Ontarians do to make sure their children can fully participate and be included in the education system, on an equality footing?


Vanessa Wells, captioning specialist: People who are hard of hearing absolutely have the right to captioning.

Vanessa Wells is a captioning specialist. She says that people with disabilities are sometimes invisible but they absolutely have the right to captions. A transcript of my interview with her follows: 

[Reporter] Why should organizations care about captioning?

[Vanessa] I think a lot of corporations feel that they don’t have… “We don’t have anyone deaf working for us and not many deaf people use our services”, but, they’re saying that because they don’t, perhaps, know the actual statistics. I keep hearing approximations in Western World countries, that about 10% of people have some degree of either deafness, or hearing problems, or being hard of hearing. So, if that’s 1 in 10, it’s quite commonly held, there’s 10% of the market right there, and a lot of people, especially in employment situations, social situations, they don’t want to talk about their deafness or their hearing issues. I have hearing conditions myself, no one wants to hear me going on about my problems hearing. So a lot of us just don’t even bother explaining. So we’re kind of invisible, and I think, with increased awareness about accessibility and legislation coming out in many countries sort of simultaneously, people are going to wake up and realize that it’s not as few people as they think. So, in terms of people with hearing problems, they absolutely have the right to captioning, to have access to content. On my blog I had a friend who’s got 20% hearing. I had her write about her experience and one of the things that really struck my heart was… She said: “When I have captions, I feel like I can participate in society.” And that really affected me.

[Reporter] Most of the businessmen that are CEOs of their own companies worry about the Return of Investment. What advice would you give them?

[Vanessa] Again… someone needs to point at the bottom line to them, that they’ve got a 10% population they’re ignoring and I was hearing, actually, overall disability rates are around 15%, and if you can’t appeal to a CEO on the bottom line, I don’t know what else can convince them. Short of giving them experiences with potential customers and potential employees and showing them how much these services are needed. And unless, perhaps they don’t have someone in their social circle or their family, with those problems I think that they’re quite oblivious, but they need educating.

 [Reporter] Thank you very much.

 [Vanessa] You’re welcome.